2. corrosion (internal and external)
3. nature (weather and temperature)
4. material failure (gaskets and welds)
5. accidents (boat anchors and construction equipment)
The above reasons can cause holes, cracks, thinning walls, dents, weak joints and, in the worst cases, a rupture. The question that then arises is: what is the best way to fix these problems? Read this Excellent Article in World Pipelines Magazine Here.